Disease surveillance by each country, with timely information sharing during outbreaks, will also contribute to better health in ASEAN. A question guide was developed for the study trips where the researchers would personally meet and interview them about their innovations. In addressing the burden of NCDs, ASEAN nations need to fundamentally re-examine how health care services are structured and delivered and discover new models as undiscerning application of models from other geographies with different cultures and resources will be problematic. Hence, more of the same interventions based on episodic care models will not do As social health insurance, PhilHealth is financed primarily through premiums for both employed and self-employed and tax-sourced government subsidies for indigents, retirees, and pensioners. The low quality of care at the health centers and district levels and the constraints of providing a full range of services at the primary care need to be addressed to gain people’s confidence and increase utilization of services. For each of the innovations identified for more study, the research team conducted preliminary phone or email interviews with the project leaders to ascertain the suitability of the case study based on the criteria checklist.

This system occasionally results in difficulties in reimbursements among migrants who are hospitalized overseas. Without proper monitoring and enforcement, employers can and do try to reduce costs by under-insuring workers or, for irregular migrants, not insuring them at all. More of the same or wholesale transfers of developed world models will lead to financially unsustainable programmes or programmes lacking appropriate human capital. The most valuable resource is not money but the energy and enthusiasm of the community which is created and reinforced by autonomy and ownership. Unfortunately, while much attention, including in academic literature, has been devoted to the economic benefits and risks of intra-regional labor migration as well as the social costs of irregular migration and human trafficking within ASEAN, the health and well-being of migrants themselves still remain to be examined Geographically scattered and limited population coverage by social protection schemes are both major barriers to accessing care, resulting in a high level of OOP payments and impoverishment; a further government subsidy could help to ease the high burden of OOP payments. Recently, Thailand and Cambodia have signed an MOU to develop border health services to be implemented by designated national task forces.

essay filipino reader in the era of asean integration

In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Challenging as they may seem due to the huge diversity of healthcare financing arrangements among countries, co-financing mechanisms between sending and receiving countries may also be explored. In addition to language, evidence consistently suggested that race and ethnicity also substantially influenced the quality of the doctor-patient relationship Our case series suggests that the best funding agencies, whether governmental or non-governmental, are rwader ones that are actively involved in the program with an on-site presence and quick and easy approval processes for any variations from the submitted proposal.


Special Issue: ASEAN Integration and its Health Implications

The first theme is the extent to vilipino a medical license issued by one country is valid in other countries. No framework that integrates both pre- and post-production as well as migration of health care professionals in ASEAN has been proposed iin the literature.

Although this common license forms a sense of community, only 2 out of 13 interviewees thought that it is possible to achieve; the rest disagreed mainly because of diverse systems and contexts across ASEAN countries in the quality of medical education, language used, and culture. While diverse frameworks have been developed to build a common understanding of UHC, this paper uses the classic UHC cube introduced by the WHO as a guiding framework for analysis Richer Local Government Units tend to better support and maintain their facilities and services thus worsening health inequities between regions.

On the one hand, unequal educational capacity leads to imbalances in the physician workforce The importance of community ownership was also recognised by Dr.


Another scheme, the Employee Provident Fund EPFrequires mandatory monthly contribution among Malaysian formal sector workers which provides disbursements for medical care; however, registration remains optional integrxtion migrant workers. In the community diabetes innovation in Indonesia, the project leader also recognised that strengthening government partnership is also important hence one of the key strategies is to continually advocate at all levels of the government. Collaboration is based on the understanding that individual and community well-being is determined as much by social, environmental, and economic systems as by health care provision.

essay filipino reader in the era of asean integration

Political commitments to safeguard health budgets and increase health spending will be necessary given liberalization’s risks to health equity as well as migration and population aging which will increase demand on health systems. In addition, search engines such as Google and Google Scholar were also used. Any political negotiation regarding the medical license validity should be carefully done, however.

Special Issue: ASEAN Integration and its Health Implications

Feasibility and concerns about validity and reliability of the data from these secondary sources were discussed among the investigators. The authors would like to thank the internal reviewers of HealthSpace. After that, the villagers had to pay for the medicines out of their own pockets, and they did! However, different communities are in varying stages of willingness and readiness to change.

For example, a series of dialogues has already been undertaken to explore how these countries can jointly address health policy, financing, and care delivery issues for migrants crossing the Thai border At a July meeting, the countries agreed to improve the referral system and care for critically ill patients, as well as non-critical case referrals across the border.


The validity of the medical license and that it reflects a consistent and high standard of medical knowledge asen a sensitive issue because of potentially unfair movement of physicians and an embedded sense of domination, at least from a Thai perspective. Tbe, in Augustthe annual premium, which is paid in advance by the employer and then later deducted from the migrant’s wage, was raised from THB 1, to 2, from USD 40 to ASEAN leaders have identified th as a priority sector for region-wide integration.

To be a physician, one must complete the required professional medical training, be conferred the professional medical qualification, and be licensed by the Professional Medical Regulatory Authority PMRA in the Country of Origin documenting they are technically, ethically, and legally qualified to undertake professional medical practice 2.

The MAs and nurses lived in the villages hence they knew the villagers well and were able to establish rapport with them.

A thematic analysis approach was adopted. At esssay, health benefits are incorporated in the compulsory Migrant Worker Insurance Program, which includes illness, accident, and fliipino coverage Government spending on health filipno a percentage of total government spending varies, from a low of 1.

Four points are worth noting. With a large geographical archipelagic area, another huge challenge is to provide equal access to healthcare, including for populations in remote areas and islands of Indonesia.

Essay filipino reader in the era of asean integration – Air Soluitons – кондиционерные системы

ASEAN member countries may also emulate examples of similar regional blocs that have extensive experience in improving access to healthcare among migrants, including undocumented migrants who are not covered with private health insurance, for instance by their employers. More of the same or wholesale transfers of developed world models will be ineffective and lead to financially unsustainable programmes or programmes lacking appropriate human capital.

All the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to flipino UHC, namely 1 financial constraints; 2 supply side constraints; and 3 the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages, characterized by increasing burdens of NCDs, persisting infectious diseases, and reemerging potentially pandemic infectious diseases.